Several influences crossed each other at such times, and so the episcopal elections and nominations have become key moments for our understanding of the balances and interests shaping the map of diocesan appointments. This helped define a trajectory which, unlike previous ones, did not end with an episcopal seat but rather with the position of chancellor — a post which he possibly held until the death of the king, although he could not withstand the change of monarch This means that he held the position for more than 30 years.
In addition, he was the judge appointed by the king in his rift with Isabel Afonso, niece of king Denis Such trust will be further emphasised by the choice of his person as a witness to king Denis' last will It was in conjunction with some of these clerics, too, that he bore witness to the agreement between king Denis and the Master of the Temple over the castle of Soure. From the documentation, however, it is unclear whether the post remained vacant until his death. His choice of an ecclesiastical career may have been made already by his maternal uncle, Martim Martins Dade II, canon of Lisbon.
But to this benefice he further added, in the early 's, the rectorate of St. This reveals a simultaneity of functions, an enjoyment of ecclesiastical benefices and titles in parallel with the holding of posts in the administration, something which we have already seen in the cases mentioned before. It is impossible to decide whether this variation in titles corresponds to a sharing of functions between a chancellor and a vice-chancellor, or to the sole existence of a vice-chancellor or a vedor of the chancery.
Holding several benefices and canonships, for whose possession he obtains papal dispensation 91 , only at the close of the 's does he seem to have reached the post of dean in the Viseu diocese, by that time already under the rule of bishop Egas But, unlike previous cases, papal intervention will not result now in the promotion of a third party, neutral to the conflict, but rather in the choice of one of the actors involved - namely Vasco Martins, then bishop of Lamego, chosen by a part of the Guarda chapter After this date, he may have managed to keep possession of his other benefices, but the fact is that his name ceases to be mentioned.
The conflicts inside chapters caused by episcopal elections, and the papal interference in their resolution, necessarily implied that some of the players had to be left behind. His presence in the confirmation of some royal documentation, and his participation in the treaty of Alcanices, allow us to be certain of his connection to the king, but they fail to give evidence of a career of continuous collaboration with royalty, showing us instead a trajectory drawn around two dioceses in the interior of the country. Having written in defence of ecclesiastical freedoms, he is one of few voices who warn of the risks of royal intervention, at a time when the long conflict between Rome and the Portuguese royalty was seeking resolution.
He did so in a context which king Denis would possibly like to present as one of peacemaking and concord. But, just like Vasco Martins, his name and life course never manage to take him close to royal circles.
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Facing off were a bishop known for his defence of ecclesiastical freedom, and criticism of the king's interventionism, and a clergyman whose life trajectory drew him close to royal circles and whose career had enabled him to hoard a significant accumulation of benefices. As Carvalho Homem has already stressed, the absence of a chancellor would not have been an exclusive Portuguese singularity , whence such a situation might have materialized in this period. A cleric of Aragonese origin, according to some, and a Portuguese national to others , Miguel Vivas constitutes yet another example of a clergyman issuing from the ranks of the king's clerics who, while he performed his duties as chancellor, and in subsequent years, accumulated a significant amount of benefices scattered throughout various dioceses.
Several factors may account for the failure of this attempt on the part of king Afonso IV, but especially important must have been the difficulties which hampered royal intervention in Porto and, in particular, in its diocese — difficulties which normally characterized the relationship between the king and diocesan organs The days of the clerical chancellors appear then to be over and, gradually, the sphere of ecclesiastical intervention will gain new competencies and assume different profiles.
Actually this control, unlike what had happened in the early kings' reigns, did not entail the construction of long careers; in fact there was strong rotation of the post's holders. This rotation reflected the organ's growing autonomy, as well as its gradual consolidation, enabling an increasing separation of the body of scribes from the person at the head of the chancery.
Chancellor and Vedor. Ensaio sobre as Origens de Portugal , vol. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, , p. Porto: INIC, , pp. I n Boletin Millares Carlo, n. I n La Espana Medieval, vol V. Madrid: Universidad Complutense, , pp. Madrid: Centre for Political and Constitutional Studies, , pp. Lisbon: Instituto de Estudos Medievais, , pp. In Ibidem, pp.
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Paris: PUF, , pp. There are numerous studies on the question of the presence of the clergy in the administration structure. In Reinhard , Wolfgang ed. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, , pp. Ponta Delgada, Portugal, os Portugueses e os Outros. Lisboa: Colibri, Cascais: Patrimonia, Lisboa: Difel, Lisboa, , pp. PhD thesis in Mediaeval History. Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, , which collects a considerable volume of data regarding the Lisbon city council oligarchy and reconstructing elites who were also linked to the central structure.
As far as the latter is concerned, there are two volumes already published, namely book II and book V, this latter is normally called Livro das Lezirias. Chancelaria de D. Dinis, Livro II, pub. In Chartes, Sceaux et Chancelleries, 2 vols. In De Gualdo , Germano eds.http://webmail.openpress.alaska.edu/16829-paginas-de-citas.php
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Actes du Colloque. Porto: Faculdade de Letras, , pp. Porto, vol. XIII pp. Coimbra: Faculdade de Letras, , particularly pp. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte, , pp. Sancho II. Sancho I. We have some doubts regarding the identification of Pedro do Sem as the canon of Viseu by the author in note We may be facing a case of homonymy. Afonso IV IV, pp. He is mentioned in the chancery of King D. Dinis between and May , always identified as chancellor. Dinis, Livro 1. II, p.
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Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, , vol. II, pp. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, , pp. Domingos Anes Jardo and D. Dinis, L. Frei Telo, arcebispo —primaz, e as concordatas de D. Congresso Internacional.
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Braga, , vol. Itinerarium, Braga, ano 12, n. From episcopal election to papal provision. London: Ashgate, , pp. Before, in , the same member of the clergy had been mentioned as vice-chancellor in documents from from which one can presuppose that D. Domingos had remained at the head of the institution.
Moreira de ed. I Lisboa, , pp. Master dissertation in Medieval History. Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa, , anex. However this mention is not clear in respect to his place as chancellor. Nevertheless, the references to his name as chancellor stopped from onwards, though this did not mean his removal from royal circles, as will be seen later, since his name continued to be mentioned in other contexts.
Lisboa: CEHR, Dinis , pp. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, , pp. Dinis , L. Leon: Universidad de Leon, , doc. II, anex. Afonso IV Lisboa, Her main research fields are political society and the construction of royal power in Portugal in the late Middle Ages, ecclesiastical elites and urban societies. Her main publications include Afonso II. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers.
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Desktop version Mobile version. Results per book Results per chapter. Part I - Kings and clergy: royal service and political loyalty. Serious students in Portugal and abroad welcomed the book as an historical work of the first rank, for its evidence of careful research, its able marshalling of facts, its scholarship and its painful accuracy, while the sculptural simplicity of the style and the correctness of the diction made it a Portuguese classic.
The second volume of his history appeared in , the third in , and the fourth in The first volume, however, gave rise to a celebrated controversy, because Herculano had reduced the famous battle of Ourique , which was supposed to have seen the birth of the Portuguese monarchy, to the dimensions of a mere skirmish, and denied the apparition of Christ to King Afonso , a fable first circulated in the 15th century. Herculano was denounced from the pulpit and by the press for his lack of patriotism and piety, and after bearing the attack for some time his pride drove him to reply.
In a letter to the cardinal patriarch of Lisbon entitled Eu e o Clero , he denounced the fanaticism and ignorance of the clergy in plain terms, and this provoked a fierce pamphlet war marked by much personal abuse. A professor of Arabic in Lisbon intervened to sustain the accepted view of the battle, and charged Herculano and his supporter, Pascual de Gayangos with ignorance of the Arab historians and of their language.
The conduct of the controversy, which lasted some years, did credit to none of the contending parties, but Herculano's statement of the facts was eventually universally accepted as correct. In his youth, the excesses of absolutism had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and Christianity.
His "History of the Origin and Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal" — , relating the thirty years' struggle between King John III and the Jews —he to establish the tribunal and they to prevent him—was compiled, as the preface showed, to stem the ultramontane reaction, but nonetheless carried weight because it was a recital of events with little or no comment or evidence of passion in its author. Next to these two books "History of Portugal from the beginning of the monarchy to the end of the reign of Afonso III" and "History of the origin and establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal" , his study, "Condition of the working classes on the peninsula from the seventh to the twelfth century" "Do Estado des classes servas na Peninsula desde o VII.
In Herculano began editing a series of Portugalliae monumenta historica , but personal differences between him and the keeper of the Archives, which he necessarily frequented, interrupted his historical studies. The alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented by Herculano and his fellow poetic historians Chateaubriand and Lamartine had ended as the movement known as Ultramontanism grew within the Catholic hierarchy after the Revolutions of Disillusioned with mankind and despairing of the future of his country, Herculano rarely emerged from his retirement; when he did so, it was to fight political and religious reactionaries.
Herculano defended Portugal's monastic orders advocating their reform rather than suppression and successfully opposed the entry of foreign religious orders. Other key documents issued by Pius IX during the ecclesiastical retrenchment include the Syllabus of Errors and Etsi multa In the domain of letters he remained until his death a veritable pontiff, and an article or book of his was an event celebrated from one end of Portugal to the other.
The nation continued to look up to him for intellecual leadership, but, in his later years, lacking hope himself, he could not stimulate others or use to advantage the powers conferred upon him. In politics he remained a constitutional Liberal of the old type, and, for him, the people were the middle classes in opposition to the lower, which he saw to have been the supporters of tyranny in all ages, while he considered radicalism to mean a return via anarchy to absolutism.
However, though he conducted political propaganda campaigns in the press in his early days, Herculano never exercised much influence in politics. Grave as most of his writings are, they include a short description of a crossing from Jersey to Granville, in which he satirizes English character and customs, and he reveals an unexpected sense of humour.
A rare capacity for tedious work, a dour Catonian rectitude, a passion for truth, pride, irritation when criticized, and independence of character are the marks of Herculano as a man. He could be broken but never bent, and his rude frankness accorded with his hard, sombre face, and he often alienated men's sympathies though he seldom lost their respect. His lyricism is vigorous, feeling but austere, and almost entirely subjective and personal, while his pamphlets are distinguished by energy of conviction, strength of affirmation, and contempt for weaker and more ignorant opponents.
His History of Portugal is a great but incomplete monument. A lack of imagination and a deficit of the philosophic spirit prevented him from penetrating or drawing characters, but his analytical gift, joined to persevering toil and honesty of purpose, enabled him to present a faithful account of ascertained facts and a satisfactorily lucid explanation of political and economic events.
His more important works have gone through many editions, and his name is still one to reckon with when considering modern historians of Portugal and of the Iberian peninsula. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Alexandre Herculano. Abovian Alencar Alfieri Andersen A.
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