Consciousness is the awareness of the self in space and time. Researchers study states of human consciousness and differences in perception in order to understand how the body works to produce conscious awareness. First appearing in the historical records of the ancient Mayan and Incan civilizations, various theories of multiple levels of consciousness have pervaded spiritual, psychological, medical, and moral speculations in both Eastern and Western cultures. The ancient Mayans were among the first to propose an organized sense of each level of consciousness, its purpose, and its temporal connection to humankind.
Because consciousness incorporates stimuli from the environment as well as internal stimuli, the Mayans believed it to be the most basic form of existence, capable of evolution. The Incas, however, considered consciousness to be a progression, not only of awareness but of concern for others as well. Sigmund Freud divided human consciousness into three levels of awareness: the conscious , preconscious , and unconscious. The preconscious consists of those things we could pay conscious attention to if we so desired, and where many memories are stored for easy retrieval.
Freud saw the preconscious as those thoughts that are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but that are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious e. Figure 2. In this diagram, the bright blue line represents the divide between consciousness above and unconsciousness below.
Below this line, but above the id, is the preconscious level. The lowest segment is the unconscious. Like the ego, the superego has conscious and unconscious elements, while the id is completely unconscious. When all three parts of the personality are in dynamic equilibrium, the individual is thought to be mentally healthy. However if the ego is unable to mediate between the id and the superego, an imbalance occurs in the form of psychological distress. For example:. Psychoanalysis is a type of analysis that involves attempting to affect behavioural change through having patients talk about their difficulties.
Practising psychoanalysts today collect their data in much the same way as Freud did, through case studies, but often without the couch. The analyst listens and observes, gathering information about the patient. Psychoanalytic scientists today also collect data in formal laboratory experiments, studying groups of people in more restricted, controlled ways Cramer, ; Westen, Jung focused less on infantile development and conflict between the id and superego, and more on integration between different parts of the person.
Active imagination: This refers to activating our imaginal processes in waking life in order to tap into the unconscious meanings of our symbols. These symbolic images exist outside space and time. There are also nature archetypes, like fire, ocean, river, mountain. Through listening to the messages of our dreams and waking imagination, we can contact and reintegrate our different parts.
The goal of life is individuation, which is the process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious, synergizing the many components of the psyche. Each human being has a specific nature and calling uniquely his or her own, and unless these are fulfilled through a union of conscious and unconscious, the person can become sick. Neurosis: Jung had a hunch that what passed for normality often was the very force that shattered the personality of the patient. In the psychiatric hospital, he wondered why psychiatrists were not interested in what their patients had to say.
Story: Jung concluded that every person has a story, and when derangement occurs, it is because the personal story has been denied or rejected. Healing and integration come when the person discovers or rediscovers his or her own personal story. Dream symbols carried messages from the unconscious to the rational mind. Unconscious: This basic tenet, as expressed by Jung, states that all products of the unconscious are symbolic and can be taken as guiding messages.
Within this concept, there are two types:. Word association test: This is a research technique that Jung used to explore the complexes in the personal unconscious. It consisted of reading words to someone, one at a time, and having the person respond quickly with a word of his or her own. Jung distinguished two general attitudes—introversion and extraversion—and four functions—thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting:. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.
Having studied the work of Jung, the mother-daughter team turned their interest in human behaviour into a practical application of the theory of psychological types. Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking, with one of these four functions being dominant most of the time. The MBTI provides individuals with a measure of their dominant preferences based on the Jungian functions. Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.
Blending psychology, sociology, social anthropology, marketing, and economics, the study of consumer behaviour attempts to understand the decision-making processes of buyers, such as how emotions affect buying behaviour Figure 2. Stimuli can be experienced as interpersonal stimuli between people or intrapersonal stimuli within people.
The black box model is related to the black box theory of behaviourism, where the focus is set not on the processes inside a consumer, but on the relation between the stimuli and the response of the consumer. The marketing stimuli are planned and processed by the companies, whereas the environmental stimuli are based on social, economic, political, and cultural circumstances of a society. Freud showed a great interest in the interpretation of human dreams, and his theory centred on the notion of repressed longing — the idea that dreaming allows us to sort through unresolved, repressed wishes.
Latent content relates to deep unconscious wishes or fantasies, while manifest content is superficial and meaningless. Manifest content often masks or obscures latent content. Threat-simulation theory s uggests that dreaming should be seen as an ancient biological defence mechanism. Dreams are thought to provide an evolutionary advantage because of their capacity to repeatedly simulate potential threatening events. This process enhances the neurocognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and avoidance.
During much of human evolution, physical and interpersonal threats were serious enough to reward reproductive advantage to those who survived them. Therefore, dreaming evolved to replicate these threats and continually practice dealing with them. This theory suggests that dreams serve the purpose of allowing for the rehearsal of threatening scenarios in order to better prepare an individual for real-life threats.
This practice frees up space in the brain to deal with the emotional arousals of the next day and allows instinctive urges to stay intact. In effect, the expectation is fulfilled i. This theory explains why dreams are usually forgotten immediately afterwards. They are merely electrical brain impulses that pull random thoughts and imagery from our memories. The theory posits that humans construct dream stories after they wake up, in a natural attempt to make sense of the nonsensical. However, given the vast documentation of realistic aspects to human dreaming as well as indirect experimental evidence that other mammals e.
Continual-activation theory : The continual-activation theory of dreaming proposes that dreaming is a result of brain activation and synthesis. Dreaming and REM sleep are simultaneously controlled by different brain mechanisms. NREM non-rapid eye movement or non-REM sleep processes the conscious-related memory declarative memory , and REM rapid eye movement sleep processes the unconscious-related memory procedural memory. The underlying assumption of continual-activation theory is that during REM sleep, the unconscious part of a brain is busy processing procedural memory.
Meanwhile, the level of activation in the conscious part of the brain descends to a very low level as the inputs from the senses are basically disconnected. Nielsen and colleagues investigated the dimensional structure of dreams by administering the Typical Dreams Questionnaire TDQ to 1, first-year university students in three Canadian cities. A profile of themes was found that varied little by age, gender, or region; however, differences that were identified correlated with developmental milestones, personality attributes, or sociocultural factors.
Incubation can take a variety of forms, such as taking a break, sleeping, or working on another kind of problem either more difficult or less challenging. Findings suggest that incubation can, indeed, have a positive impact on problem-solving outcomes. Interestingly, lower-level cognitive tasks e. There are several hypotheses that aim to explain the conscious-unconscious effects on problem solving:.
The study of neural correlates of consciousness NCC seeks to link activity within the brain to subjective human experiences in the physical world.
Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
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