Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time


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Consciousness is the awareness of the self in space and time. Researchers study states of human consciousness and differences in perception in order to understand how the body works to produce conscious awareness. First appearing in the historical records of the ancient Mayan and Incan civilizations, various theories of multiple levels of consciousness have pervaded spiritual, psychological, medical, and moral speculations in both Eastern and Western cultures. The ancient Mayans were among the first to propose an organized sense of each level of consciousness, its purpose, and its temporal connection to humankind.

Because consciousness incorporates stimuli from the environment as well as internal stimuli, the Mayans believed it to be the most basic form of existence, capable of evolution. The Incas, however, considered consciousness to be a progression, not only of awareness but of concern for others as well. Sigmund Freud divided human consciousness into three levels of awareness: the conscious , preconscious , and unconscious. The preconscious consists of those things we could pay conscious attention to if we so desired, and where many memories are stored for easy retrieval.

Freud saw the preconscious as those thoughts that are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but that are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious e. Figure 2. In this diagram, the bright blue line represents the divide between consciousness above and unconsciousness below.

Below this line, but above the id, is the preconscious level. The lowest segment is the unconscious. Like the ego, the superego has conscious and unconscious elements, while the id is completely unconscious. When all three parts of the personality are in dynamic equilibrium, the individual is thought to be mentally healthy. However if the ego is unable to mediate between the id and the superego, an imbalance occurs in the form of psychological distress. For example:. Psychoanalysis is a type of analysis that involves attempting to affect behavioural change through having patients talk about their difficulties.

Practising psychoanalysts today collect their data in much the same way as Freud did, through case studies, but often without the couch. The analyst listens and observes, gathering information about the patient. Psychoanalytic scientists today also collect data in formal laboratory experiments, studying groups of people in more restricted, controlled ways Cramer, ; Westen, Jung focused less on infantile development and conflict between the id and superego, and more on integration between different parts of the person.

Active imagination: This refers to activating our imaginal processes in waking life in order to tap into the unconscious meanings of our symbols. These symbolic images exist outside space and time. There are also nature archetypes, like fire, ocean, river, mountain. Through listening to the messages of our dreams and waking imagination, we can contact and reintegrate our different parts.

The goal of life is individuation, which is the process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious, synergizing the many components of the psyche. Each human being has a specific nature and calling uniquely his or her own, and unless these are fulfilled through a union of conscious and unconscious, the person can become sick. Neurosis: Jung had a hunch that what passed for normality often was the very force that shattered the personality of the patient. In the psychiatric hospital, he wondered why psychiatrists were not interested in what their patients had to say.

Story: Jung concluded that every person has a story, and when derangement occurs, it is because the personal story has been denied or rejected. Healing and integration come when the person discovers or rediscovers his or her own personal story. Dream symbols carried messages from the unconscious to the rational mind. Unconscious: This basic tenet, as expressed by Jung, states that all products of the unconscious are symbolic and can be taken as guiding messages.

Within this concept, there are two types:. Word association test: This is a research technique that Jung used to explore the complexes in the personal unconscious. It consisted of reading words to someone, one at a time, and having the person respond quickly with a word of his or her own. Jung distinguished two general attitudes—introversion and extraversion—and four functions—thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting:. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.

Having studied the work of Jung, the mother-daughter team turned their interest in human behaviour into a practical application of the theory of psychological types. Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking, with one of these four functions being dominant most of the time. The MBTI provides individuals with a measure of their dominant preferences based on the Jungian functions. Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs, and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.

Blending psychology, sociology, social anthropology, marketing, and economics, the study of consumer behaviour attempts to understand the decision-making processes of buyers, such as how emotions affect buying behaviour Figure 2. Stimuli can be experienced as interpersonal stimuli between people or intrapersonal stimuli within people.

The black box model is related to the black box theory of behaviourism, where the focus is set not on the processes inside a consumer, but on the relation between the stimuli and the response of the consumer. The marketing stimuli are planned and processed by the companies, whereas the environmental stimuli are based on social, economic, political, and cultural circumstances of a society. Freud showed a great interest in the interpretation of human dreams, and his theory centred on the notion of repressed longing — the idea that dreaming allows us to sort through unresolved, repressed wishes.

Latent content relates to deep unconscious wishes or fantasies, while manifest content is superficial and meaningless. Manifest content often masks or obscures latent content. Threat-simulation theory s uggests that dreaming should be seen as an ancient biological defence mechanism. Dreams are thought to provide an evolutionary advantage because of their capacity to repeatedly simulate potential threatening events. This process enhances the neurocognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and avoidance.

During much of human evolution, physical and interpersonal threats were serious enough to reward reproductive advantage to those who survived them. Therefore, dreaming evolved to replicate these threats and continually practice dealing with them. This theory suggests that dreams serve the purpose of allowing for the rehearsal of threatening scenarios in order to better prepare an individual for real-life threats.

This practice frees up space in the brain to deal with the emotional arousals of the next day and allows instinctive urges to stay intact. In effect, the expectation is fulfilled i. This theory explains why dreams are usually forgotten immediately afterwards. They are merely electrical brain impulses that pull random thoughts and imagery from our memories. The theory posits that humans construct dream stories after they wake up, in a natural attempt to make sense of the nonsensical. However, given the vast documentation of realistic aspects to human dreaming as well as indirect experimental evidence that other mammals e.

Continual-activation theory : The continual-activation theory of dreaming proposes that dreaming is a result of brain activation and synthesis. Dreaming and REM sleep are simultaneously controlled by different brain mechanisms. NREM non-rapid eye movement or non-REM sleep processes the conscious-related memory declarative memory , and REM rapid eye movement sleep processes the unconscious-related memory procedural memory. The underlying assumption of continual-activation theory is that during REM sleep, the unconscious part of a brain is busy processing procedural memory.

Meanwhile, the level of activation in the conscious part of the brain descends to a very low level as the inputs from the senses are basically disconnected. Nielsen and colleagues investigated the dimensional structure of dreams by administering the Typical Dreams Questionnaire TDQ to 1, first-year university students in three Canadian cities. A profile of themes was found that varied little by age, gender, or region; however, differences that were identified correlated with developmental milestones, personality attributes, or sociocultural factors.

Incubation can take a variety of forms, such as taking a break, sleeping, or working on another kind of problem either more difficult or less challenging. Findings suggest that incubation can, indeed, have a positive impact on problem-solving outcomes. Interestingly, lower-level cognitive tasks e. There are several hypotheses that aim to explain the conscious-unconscious effects on problem solving:.

The study of neural correlates of consciousness NCC seeks to link activity within the brain to subjective human experiences in the physical world.

Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE

Progress in neurophilosophy has come from focusing on the body rather than the mind Squire, Gazzaniga M, Larkin P. USA: Tantor Press; Gennaro RJ. Higher Order Theories of Consciousness. Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Gierer A. Brain, mind and limitations of a scientific theory of consciousness. Bio Essays ; Goldman AI. Simulating Minds. Goertzel B, Pennachin C. Artificial General Intelligence. Berlin: Springer; The Honey Bee. New York: Scientific American Library; Gray JA. The contents of consciousness: A neurophysiological conjecture. Behav Brain Sci ; Griffin DR.

Animal Minds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Grush R, Churchland PC. Gaps in Penrose's toiling. Haikonen PO. The Cognitive Approach to Conscious Machines. Towards times of miracles and wonder: a model for the conscious machine. Hari S. Psychons could be zero energy tachyons. Neuro Quantology ; Consciousness, mind and matter in Indian Philosophy. J Conscious Explor Res ; Hauser M. Moral Minds. New York: Springer Press; Hesslow G. Conscious thought as simulation of behaviour and perception. Hesslow G, Jirenhed DA. The inner world of a simple robot.

Heyes CM. Theory of mind in non human primates. Anim Behav ; Holland O, Goodman R. Robots with internal models: A route to machine consciousness. Holland O. Machine Consciousness. Holt RR. Freud Reappraised: A fresh look at psychoanalytical theory. New York: Guilford Press; The Ferrier lecture: Functional architecture of the macaque monkey visual cortex. Proc Royal Soc London B ; Humphrey N. Soul Dust: The Magic of Consciousness. UK: Quercus Press; Hurley S. Consciousness In Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Husserl E. Cartesian Meditations. The Hague: Nijhoff; The Phenomenology of Internal Time Consciousness.

Hu H, Wu M. Spin mediated consciousness theory. Med Hypotheses ; Thinking outside the box: The essence and implications of quantum entanglement. Cognition, Computation and Consciousness. James W. The Principles of Psychology. London: Macmillan; Johnson MH. Subcortical face processing. Jordan JS. Synthetic phenomenology? Joseph R. The right cerebral hemisphere: Emotion, music, visuospatial skills, body image, dreams and awareness.

J Clin Psychol ; Kamitani Y, Tong F. Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain. Nat Neurosci ; Kawabata H, Zeki S. The neural correlates of beauty. J Neurophysiol ; Koch C. Roberts and Publishers; Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist. Kostovic I, Milosevic N. The development of cerebral connections in the first weeks of gestation. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; Kurzweil R. The Age of Spiritual Machines. London: Penguin Putnam; The Newborn Brain. Lagercrantz H. The emergence of the mind: A borderline of human viability.

Acta Pediatr ; Lagercrantz H, Changeux JP. The emergence of human consciousness: From fetal to neonatal life. Pediatr Res ; Lamme VA. Towards a neural stance on consciousness. LaRock E. Disambiguation, binding and the unity of visual consciousness. Theory Psychol ; Le Doux J. The human amygdala. Curr Biol ; Video ergo sum: Manipulating bodily self consciousness. Origin of GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex. Levy DN. Robots unlimited: life in a virtual age. Handbook of Emotions.

Electronically mediated oscillatory patterns in neuronal ensembles: An in vitro voltage dependent dye imaging study in the inferior olive. Light S, Zahn-Waxler C. Shape representation in the inferior temporal cortex of the monkey. Logothetis NK. Single units and conscious vision. Mach E. The Science of Mechanics.

German: German Press; Malcolm S, Keenan JP. Deception, detection and hemispheric differences in self awareness. Soc Behav Personality ; Malloy I. Essays in Cognitive Science: Collected articles on morality and consciousness. USA: Dorrance Publishers; Emotions in context: Pictorial influences on affective attributions.

Emotion ; Marsh L, Robbins P. Consciousness and the social mind. Cogn Sys Res ; Matzke DJ. Consciousness: A computational paradigm update. Acta Nerv Sup ; McFadden J. Synchronous firing and its influence on the earth's magnetic field: Evidence for an electromagnetic field theory of consciousness. McFarland D. Defining motivation and cognition in animals. Int Stud Philos Sci ; When the social mirror breaks: deficits in automatic, not voluntary, mimicry of emotional facial expressions in autism.

Dev Sci ; Merker B. The liabilities of mobility: A selection pressure for transition to consciousness in animal evolution. Metzinger T. Being No One. Cambdrige: MIT Press; Morsella E. The function of phenomenal states: Supramodular interaction theory. Psychol Rev ; Moutoussis K, Zeki S. Relation between cortical activation and perceptual investigation with invisible stimuli. Mukherjee BD. The Essence of the Bhagavad Gita. Kolkata: Academic Publishers; Mulhauser G.

Mind out of Matter. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers; An introduction to Quantum Neural Computing. J Glob Res Comp Sci ; Nehaniv C. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; Nijhuis JG. Fetal behaviour: The brain and behaviour in different stages of human life. Neurobiol Aging ;S Noe A. Action in Perception. Nowakowski R.

Empedocles: Neurophilosophy and Neurosciences- Prophecy and Reality - MedCrave online

Stable neuron numbers from cradle to grave. Panksepp J. Affective Neuroscience. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in humans and animals. Papineau D. Thinking About Consciousness. Pellionisz A, Llinas R. Tensor network theory of the metaorganization of functional geometries in the CNS. Neurosci ; Penrose R. The Emperor's New Mind. Vintage: London; New York: Vintage Books; Word Press; Phillips P. An introduction to artificial intelligence: Have the thinking machines arrived. Pockett S. Difficulties with an electromagnetic field theory of consciousness. Difficulties with an electromagnetic field theory of consciousness: An update.

Prechtl HF. Ultrasound studies of human fetal behaviour. Early Hum Dev ; Prinz J. A neurofunctional theory of visual consciousness. Prinz, J. Gut Reactions. Randall L. UK: Ecco Books; Ritblatt SN. Children's level of participation in a false belief task, age and theory of mind. J Genet Psychol ; Robbins P. Jack AI. The phenomenal stance. Philos Stud ; Rolls ET. Precis of the brain and emotion. The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain Cogn ; Emotion Explained. A computational neuroscience approach to consciousness. Neural Netw ; Rolls ET, Deco G. Computational Neuroscience Of Vision.

Rosenthal DM.

Other Books By This Author

Two concepts of consciousness. Consciousness And Mind. Consciousness and its function. Roy S, Llinas R. Dynamic geometry, brain function modelling and consciousness. Netherlands: Elsevier; Choice uncertainty and value in the prefrontal and cingulated cortex. Russell JA. Culture and the categorization of emotions.


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Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Scharf C. USA: Scientific Press; Searle JR. Minds, brains and programs. The Rediscovery of The Mind. Annu Rev Neurosci ; Shahnahan M. A cognitive architecture that combines internal simulation with a global workspace. Siddharth BG. The Chaotic Universe. New York: Nova Science; Silverman MP. Quantum Superposition: Consequences of Coherence and Entanglement. Simpson J, Weiner E. Oxford English Dictionary.

UK: Oxford University Press; Singer W. Neuronal synchrony: A versatile code for the definition of relations. Neuron ; Singer T. The neuronal basis and the ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: Review of literature and implications for further research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; Notes on a few issues in the philosophy of psychiatry. Brain-Mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: And further, the need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines.

Mens Sana Mongr ; A Discussion in the mind brain consciousness group Let's study the structure that is the very raison de etre of our existence. Sloman A, Chrisley R. Virtual machines and consciousness. Smith Q, Jokic A. Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Smolin L. The Trouble with Physics. UK: Penguin Books; Smythies J. Space, time and consciousness. A computational model of machine consciousness.

Int J Mach Conscn ; Stein JD.

How Will You Look Like in the 4th Dimension?

Cosmic numbers: The numbers that define our universe. UK: A1 Books; Sun R. Accounting for the computational basis of consciousness: A connectionist approach. Duality of the Mind. On levels of cognitive modelling. Philos Psychol ; Swami R. Tegmark M. The importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes. Phys Rev ;61E: Thagard P. Thagard P, Aubie B. Emotional consciousness: A neural model of how cognitive appraisal and somatic perception interact to provide a qualitative experience.

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Anatomical evidence for MT and additional cortical visual areas in humans. Cereb Cortex ; Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in the human extra-striate cortex. Tononi G. An information integration theory of consciousness. BMC Neurosci ; Treisman A.


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    Approaches to visual cortical function. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharm Berl ; Consciousness and Ethics: Artificially conscious moral agents. Weiskrantz L. Wilkes KV. Real People: Personal Identity without thought experiments.

    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time
    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time
    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time
    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time
    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time
    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time
    Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time Neurophilosophy of Consciousness, Vol. VI : The Evolution of Complexity in 4-d Space Time

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