Organizations representing nations may become suspended from the UNPO if they fail to follow its covenant; some members of the UNPO have left because of United Nations recognition, autonomy agreements, or for other reasons. The following lists suspended members. Former members who became part of UN are highlighted with a blue background. Kohima Kohima is the hilly capital city of India's north eastern state of Nagaland. With a resident population of 99, it is the second largest city in the state.
Known as Kewhira, it was founded in when the British Empire established its headquarters of the Naga Hills , it became the capital after the state of Nagaland was inaugurated in Kohima is the land of the Angami Naga tribe, it is situated in the foothills of Japfu range located south of Kohima District and has an average elevation of metres.
Kohima was known as Kewhira; the name, was given by the British as they could not pronounce the Angami name of Kewhira. It is called after the wild flowering plant Kewhi, found in the mountains. Most local people prefer to use'Kewhira'. Battle of Kohima The British incursions into the Naga territory, beginning in the s, met with stiff resistance from the independence-loving Nagas , who had never been conquered by any empire before.
The stiffness of the resistance can be gauged by the fact that it took nearly four decades for the British to conquer a territory, less than 10, square kilometres. Kohima was the first seat of modern administration as the Headquarters of Naga Hills District with the appointment of Guybon Henry Damant as Political Officer in ; when Nagaland became a full-fledged state on 1 December , Kohima was christened as the state capital. For the first time in South-East Asia the Japanese lost the initiative to the Allies which they retained until the end of the war; this hand-to-hand battle and slaughter prevented the Japanese from gaining a high base from which they might next roll across the extensive flatlands of India.
The cemetery lies on the slopes of Garrison Hill, in what was once the Deputy Commissioner's tennis court, the scene of intense fighting, the Battle of the Tennis Court ; the epitaph carved on the memorial of the 2nd British Division in the cemetery has become world-famous as the Kohima poem. The verse is attributed to John Maxwell Edmonds , is thought to have been inspired by the epitaph written by Simonides to honour the Greek who fell at the Battle of Thermopylae in BC.
The months of June to September concentrate much of the precipitation. Kohima has cool winters with rarefied rain sometimes warm and rainy summers. The coldest months are from December to February, when frost occurs and in the higher altitudes snowfall occurs occasionally. Heavy rainfall occurs during summer; the Kohima Municipal Council was established in under India's Constitution Act, It has waste management and trade licensing and other responsibilities. Other departments of the state government, which sit in Kohima have a role in the administration of Kohima; the "City Development Plan" for the town, for example, was written by state Urban Development Department.
As of , Kohima had a population of 99, of which males and females were 51, and 47, respectively. Kohima has an average literacy rate of The city's population is composed of the 16 tribes of Nagaland ; the population of the Angamis and Lotha are the largest in present-day Kohima urban area. The major religion in Kohima is Christianity , practised by The festival takes place between the 10 December every year. All the tribes of Nagaland take part in this festival.
Naga people The Naga people are an various individuals or ethnic groups associated to the North Eastern part of India and northwestern Myanmar. In addition, the Naga have developed Nagamese Creole , which they use between various indigenous communities and villages, which each have their own dialect of language; as of , the state of Nagaland recognises 16 Naga tribes. In addition, some other Naga tribes are living in the contiguous adjoining states of Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh and across the border in Myanmar. The Naga tribes practised headhunting and preserved the heads of enemies as trophies through the 19th century and as late as The traditional customs of the Naga, as well as their lifestyle, are similar to those of the Wa people further to the Southeast and the numerous parallels between the societies and traditions of the Naga and the Wa have been pointed out by anthropologists J.
Mills and J.
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Nagas have more language diversity than states in India. Naga people speak over 89 different languages and dialects unintelligible with each other. However, there are many similarities in between different languages spoken by them. Per Grierson's classification system, Naga languages can be grouped into Western and Eastern Naga groups; the Western group includes among others Angami, Chokri and Rengma.
The Central Naga group includes Ao, Lotha ; the Sumi group originating in both central and western parts. In addition, there are Naga-Bodo group illustrated by Mikir language, Kuki group of languages illustrated by Sopvama and Luppa languages. These belong to the Tibeto-Burman language group of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages.
Shafer came up with his own classification system for languages found around Nagaland; the diversity of languages and traditions of the Nagas results most from the multiple cultural absorptions that occurred during their successive migrations. According to legend, before settling in the region, these groups moved over vast zones, in the process, some clans were absorbed into one or more other tribes.
Therefore, until recent times, absorptions were a source of many interclan conflicts. In , the Nagaland Assembly proclaimed English as the official language of Nagaland and it is the medium for education in Nagaland. Other than English, Nagamese, a creole language form of the Assamese language, is a spoken language; every tribe communicates with other tribes in Nagamese or English. However, English is the predominant written language in Nagaland; the Nagas are organized by tribes differentiated by some traditions.
They have a strong warrior tradition. Their villages are sited on hilltops and until the part of the 19th century, they made frequent armed raids to villages on the plains below; the tribes exhibit variation to a certain degree in their languages and some traditional practices Similarities in their culture distinguish them from the neighbouring occupants of the region, who are of other ethnicities. All these Naga tribes have a similar dress code, eating habits, traditional laws, etc.
One distinction was their ritual practice of headhunting, once prevalent among tribal warriors in Nagaland and Naga areas in Manipur, Changlang and among the Naga tribes in Myanmar, they used to take the heads of enemies to take on their power.
They no longer practice this ritual. Today the Naga people number around 4 million in total; the men's clothing is distinctive: conical red headgear is decorated with wild-boar canine teeth and white-black hornbill feathers. Their weapons are a spear , with the shaft decorated with red-black hair, the machete , with broad blade and long handle.
However Nagas today have culturally much westernised and traditional dresses are used except during their traditional festivals Apart from cultural contacts with the neighboring Ahoms , the ruler of Assam from , the Naga had little or no contact with the outside world, including that of greater India , until British colonization and rule of the area in the nineteenth century. In , Britain annexed Assam following the Treaty of Yandabo in In the s, the British sent expeditionary forces, in , the colonial power succeeded in concluding a non-aggression pact with Naga chiefs, who had attacked bordering areas in Assam, but the Naga violated the agreement, continuing to raid in Assam.
After the s, British attempts to annex the region to India were met with sustained and effective guerrilla resistance from Naga groups the Angami Naga tribe; the British dispatched military expeditions and succeeded in building a military post in and establishing some bases in the region. In the Angamis mounted raids on British camps. The British responded with brutality, burning several Naga villages and killing Naga non-combatants to crush their resistance; the region came under the oc. Other villages include Piphema, Vidima, Pherima, etc. The former Eastern Angami are now recognised as Chakhesang.
The Angami Nagas are hill people depending on cultivation and livestock-rearing; the Angamis are known for terraced wet-rice cultivation. They are one of the only two groups of Nagas out of the seventeen who practice wet-rice cultivation on terraces made on the hill slopes; this allows them to cultivate the same plot year after year. They depend, to a small extent, on slash-and-burn cultivation. Angamis were traditionally warriors; the Angami men spent the majority of their time in taking heads.
Since , when the British succeeded in annexing their territory, the inter-village feuds have come to an end.
With the introduction of Christianity in the region several Angamis changed their faith to Christianity. Social stratification is not observed in the Angami community. Traditionally, property was divided among sons with daughters receiving a share; the youngest male in the family inherits the parental home, which means he is responsible for their care until they pass away. According to the census, there were 1, Angami practitioners, but 10 years the figure had halved to There are several hundred adherents of the Pfutsana religion, scattered in nine villages of the southern Kohima district.
A religious organization,'Japfuphiki Pfutsana', was founded in to streamline indigenous religious practices among the Angamis. According to the Census, The Angamis celebrate; the term Sekrenyi means sanctification festival. The festival falls on the twenty-fifth day of the month Kezei.
The festival follows a circle of the first being kizie. A few drops of rice water taken from the top of a type of jug called; these are placed at the three main posts of the house by the lady of the household.
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On the first day, the young and old go to the village well to bathe. In the night, two young men clean the well; some of the village youth guard the well. As women are not allowed to touch the well water at this time, they must make sure that water is fetched for the household before then.
Niketu Iralu speaks about his life and the chequered history of the Naga struggle…
Early next morning, all the young men of the village attend the washing ritual, they wear two new shawls and sprinkle water on their chests and right arms. On their return from the well, a rooster is sacrificed, it is taken as a good omen. The innards of the rooster are hung outside the house for the village elders to inspect.
A three-day session of singing and feasting starts on the fourth day of the festival; the most interesting part is the thekra hie. The thekra hie is when the young people of the village sit together and sing traditional songs throughout the day. Jugs of rice beer and plates of meat are placed before the participants. On the seventh day, the young men go hunting; the most important ceremony falls on the eighth day when the bridge-pulling, or gate-pulling, is performed and inter-village visits are exchanged. All field work ceases during this season of song; the following is a list of prominent people belonging to the Angami tribe A.
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Phizo leader of Naga National Council. Accredited for the political unification and self awareness of the Naga people. Vizol Angami , first Naga pilot and chief minister of Nagaland. Methaneilie Solo, legendary composer and musician among th. It was founded in as the Ohio College Library Center. It concentrates on the issue of broadening the parameters of how anarchist theory and practice is conceptualised. The question of individual liberty and collective needs raises an equally important anarchist principle: equating the means of an action with its ends.
The book compares the major philosophical differences and strategies between the classical period and the contemporary anti-capitalist movements. It assesses the viability of libertarian education, a century on from the life and work of Spanish writer and activist Francisco Ferrer and finds considerable evidence for the endurance of these ideals.
This chapter illustrates the importance of broadening the understanding of social anarchism. Social anarchism has shifted its ground as it has embraced some elements of poststructuralist philosophy. This shift in territory from social to poststructuralist anarchism is most noticeable and particularly important at two levels of theory.
The first, and the one that underscores the others, is the poststructuralist denunciation of foundationalist discourses or narratives. The second shift in theoretical territory is less pronounced but nonetheless real.
Angami Zapu Phizo
The chapter suggests that, when situated alongside the practices of new social movements associated with the anticapitalist protests, the poststructuralist perspective affords insight into how new modes of anarchist practice are emerging. It also highlights how anarchist theory and practice is evolving into something distinct and is, at the same time, nurturing contemporary modes of resistance against traditional social, political and economic forms of oppression. User Account Individual sign in Create Profile. More Sign In via Institution. Search Close. Advanced Search Help.
Atig Ghosh and Elena B. Usually this nationalist branding occurred in reaction to Western-ruled imperial pasts or current colonial opponents.
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Decolonization transformed sovereignty for regions in the Global South by recognizing many former colonies as independent states. Yet even as the UN General Assembly declared and accepted national self-determination as a norm, as it did in , that norm did not meet the standards of political practice. In practice, international recognition favored communities that had already begun to take over the infrastructures of authority under colonial rule, and acquired leverage with the colonial power—or alternatively had the military strength and regional allies to command dominance when colonial powers withdrew.
In either process, successor regimes were able to secure the acquiescence—forced or grudging—of their departing colonizer and its great power allies usually, but not exclusively, the US on their route to international recognition. Indeed, in spite of his many letters and journeys, Phizo never reached the United Nations to publically present the Naga nationalist claim. The Naga demand for an independent state, like those of many peoples within or straddling the borders of preexisting states, came up against the limits of a system of international order designed to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of its members.
The constraints on nationalist claims-making for so-called minorities show not only the complexity of decolonization, but also its structural shape—a shape defined by that which it excludes. The narrative of Naga nationalist claims-making is full of secret journeys, stalled endeavors, refused hearings, deportations, and exile. These disappointments all express the parameters, and therefore the boundaries, of what is a legitimate national claim, who can provide recognition, and the process by which that may—or may not—be achieved. This perspective reveals the process of decolonization outside of the celebratory narratives from dominant nationalist movements or those of imperial apologia, and maintains that the question of how groups are organized and recognized is political—determined by power relationships—rather than moral.
She is a researcher and historian of decolonization and the Cold War, with a regional specialization in South Asia. Find out more about Lydia Walker and her research on her website. Credit: Kristin Caulfield. Credit: Lydia Walker. This information is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence. There are a massive number of similar and copied Naga nationalist documents listing atrocities allegedly committed by the Indian Army found in collections ranging from Naga villages—I visited personal and church collections in Kohima, Mezoma, and Toulezoma outside Dimapur —to the Bodleian library in Oxford, UK.
Skip to main content. Main Menu Utility Menu Search. By Lydia Walker Twentieth-century global decolonization changed the map. But enough theory—how did this operate in practice? Credit: Kristin Caulfield 2. The Naga Hills.
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